Picture of Direct and Indirect Participants to a CSM

Direct and Indirect Participants to Clearing and Settlement Systems

Banks can join a clearing system or a settlement system as direct participant (DP) or as indirect participant (IP). After reading this post, you will understand the differences between these two types of participants and why only direct participants settle in CSM. The following figure depicts direct and indirect participants and the relationship they have to …

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Clearing and Settlement Mechanisms – Settlement

The Bank of International Settlement (BIS) defines settlement as an act that discharges obligations in respect of funds or securities transfers between two or more parties. Thus settlement is the funds transfer that is carried out by one party to fulfill his obligations towards the counterparty in a financial operation. Settlement must be performed after …

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Illustration of Multilateral Clearing Mechanism

Clearing and Settlement Mechanisms – Multilateral Clearing

After presenting the bilateral clearing in the previous article, it is now time to move to the next level: the multilateral clearing. In a multilateral clearing, a high number of financial institutions are involved. But the principle is the same as for bilateral clearing. All the participant banks will exchange payments among each other up to …

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CSM - Bilateral Clearing

Clearing and Settlement Mechanisms – Bilateral Clearing

Clearing and settlement mechanisms play a major role in the interbank exchanges of payments. They can be considered as the cornerstone of payments systems in a monetary zone. Therefore it is important to understand what they are and why they are so crucial. In this article and the next, I will present you these concepts …

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Image of European Economic Area members

European Economic Area, SEPA Countries and Eurozone

SEPA, the Single Euro Payments Area, is the area where SEPA payment instruments like the SEPA Credit Transfer and SEPA Direct Debit can be used. SEPA countries amount to 34 member states out of which certain states belong to other areas like the Eurozone and the European Economic Area (EEA). This article should help you understand …

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Picture of payment systems

Payment, Payment Instruments and Payment Systems

Many take payment systems for granted and some are not even aware of their existence. But the reality is that our world would be completely different without them. What is a payment? What are payment instruments and payment systems? To start with fundamentals, this first article provides a brief introduction to payments and payment instruments …

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